In American history, the two-main civil-rights occurrences, which have had an influence on the sense of American government, in the today’s social responsibility are as follows:
- The march by Martin Luther King Jr from Selma to the state capital of Montgomery
There existed a strong link amid the protest drive that occurred at Alabama in Selina, in 1965 and consequently the Voting Rights Act passage. The protest drive in Selma-Alabama prompted the government to pass the Voting-Rights Act. In spite of having voting rights, only two percent blacks had registered as voters in Selma-Alabama. It driven thousands of black men, in guidance of Martin Luther King Jr in early 1965, to march to Montgomery state capital from Selma towards (Iyengar & Westwood, 2015). The momentous march, in addition to the King’s participation, significantly assisted in elevating awareness on problems that had faced the Southern black voters for a long time, besides the necessity for Voting Rights Act, which was passed later in the same year. Essentially, USA government approved civil right act in 1964. As per the act, the eligibility to vote was extended to the blacks. Nonetheless, in numerous states, officials did not allow them to register as voters. In this period, numerous organizations came out to request blacks to engage in the match for getting their voting rights. The organizations’ push was encountered with strong resistance mainly from the southern states like Alabama. Martin Luther King march led to the creation of Selma and Alabama. George Wallace, the Alabama Governor stood to be the most notorious challenger of desegregation. Besides, there was steadfast opposition to the movement for black voter registration. This led to two- percent of black eligible voters (300 out of 15,000) in Selma managing to be registered as voters. In February, demonstrators were confronted violently by white-segregationists. The Administration of Alabama state similarly deployed troops in countering the nonviolent protests of black Americans origin. In the two attacks, several people mainly blacks were killed as well as Jimmie Lee Jackson. The Administration used guns and tear gas on the demonstrators. These ruthless scenes were televised, which annoyed Americans besides leading to civil rights activist alongside religious leaders of all convictions to assemble Selma in protest. Afterward, Lyndon Johnson was forced to take the initiative of addressing a joint assembly of Congress. In his address, the head of state asked Congress to steadfastly pass voting rights legislation in order to protect and enhance the rights of voting of blacks. Following all these, On August Congress passed the Voting Rights Act legislation, that guaranteed the voting right) to all American of African origin. The officials of Alabama law played a negative part in the passage of this Act. Many officials of the Alabama law were of white origin, hence they opposed the federal administration move in passing the voting right bill. Nationwide media attention besides out-of-state protestors played very vital role in the Voting Rights Act passage.
- Gay Liberation
Gay liberation is considered to be one of the most controversial issues. Courts, political parties, and civil society are all divided on the issue of gay liberation. Gay liberation drive began in the 20th century nonetheless it got movement push in the 1970s. During the year 1942, the Human Rights Society in Chicago become the nation’s earliest recognized gay rights group. The supporters of this movement believed that the gay marriage should legalize in the USA. In 2000, the state Vermont become the first state nationwide to legally recognize civil unions among the gay and lesbian couples (Almond & Verba, 2015). In the year 2003, The Supreme Court made a verdict in Lawrence v. Texas that the laws of sodomy in the United States are unconstitutional. This case is concerned with two gay persons who were caught by the police in their apartments. The Houston police were mainly dispatched to the apartment of Lawrence’s (D) as a result of the weapons disturbance report. The police found Garner (D) and Lawrence in a sexual act. Garner and Lawrence were arrested, charged and convicted as per the Texas law of “deviate sexual intercourse, specifically anal sex, with a person of the identical sex (man).” Garner and Lawrence challenged the act as an abuse of the Fourteenth Amendment Equal Protection Clause of the. Garner and Lawrence were each fined a whooping of cash $200 and ordered to pay $141.25 as costs (Iyengar & Westwood, 2015). When the case reaches the Supreme Court, the court gave historical judgment in the favor of accused. After this case, various states including Washington. California and New York passed the laws for same-sex marriage. Over the last few years, the political culture of America has undergone some significant changes. After the appointment of Obama as a president, things got changed dramatically. The government also supported the gay marriage along with supporters of gay marriage. The American society accepted the gay marriage.
A recent media event that has caught American’s attention is present water crisis in Flint, Michigan. Since 2014, it has been reported that residents of Flint have been drinking water contaminated with high levels of lead, which has led to increased lead poisoning in adults, as well as school-aged children. What shocks is that Michigan Government officials, including Governor Rick Snyder, have known about the contaminated water but yet failed to act. The events began when the city prematurely ended its contract of obtaining water from The Department of Detroit Water and Sewerage and as an alternative joined a new-fangled pipeline project which would draw its water from Lake Huron. This switch, officially was made in April the year 2013, was completed in large portion to save city’s millions of dollars it was losing. The water did contain salts that corroded pipes, and the right combination of inhibitors of corrosion was never used. Not only did residents protest that their water was foul, “but then again it ultimately became clear that lead was leaching into the supply of water from old pipes of the city. Lead is extremely toxic metal, particularly for children whose tissues and organs were still developing.”(Iyengar & Westwood, 2015) The center of this controversy has been the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, as well as the EPA and Governor Snyder.
Media coverage of the Flint crisis has shown ineptness in government, which has caused a negative public perception of Michigan state. During a congressional hearing, many congressional leaders called for Snyder and EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy to step down, as well as democrat presidential candidates Hillary Clinton and Bernie Sanders. Many Flint residents, including filmmaker Michael Moore, want him jailed (Graber & Dunaway, 2017).
Another media coverage event that negatively affected a government agency is the coverage of the Tamir Rice shooting in Cleveland, Ohio. The City of Cleveland recently reached a settlement of six million dollars with Tamir Rice family, a twelve-year-old black who Police officers shot and killed when they mistakenly noticed that a gun carried by Rice was a toy gun. Rice’s shooting is just a list of incidents in where African American males have shot and killed by Police officers, sparking the “Black Lives Matter” movement in recent years (Graber & Dunaway, 2017). An outstanding jury decided not to bring charges against police, sparking protests across the city and the country. These types of killing have shed a negative light on local governments and police departments, forcing them to respond to citizen concerns about policing tactics, and the use of deadly force.
The views on social issues are an imperative difference mainly amid Democratic and Republican party. The Republican Party representatives are more influential on the societal issues. Their policies mainly favor gay marriage and smoothen matrimony between individuals of the opposite sex. Additionally, they protest against abortion that is highly underpinned by the Democrats. However, these representatives are immensely supportive of the right of weapon ownership, such as a pistol, revolver among others (Graber & Dunaway, 2017). In contrast, the Democratic Party seems more liberal in their political perspectives. They advocate for abortion and gay marriages. Nevertheless, they are strongly against the control of gun policy. The vital example is the law that was passed by the Democrat Leader Barrack Obama stating that gay matrimony needs to be a constitutional right (Iyengar & Westwood, 2015). The majority states that have legalized gay marriages include Alabama, Arizona, California, Indiana, etc. This law has brought a negative ethical impact to the American society. The religious believers, such as Christians, Muslims, and Jews are against gay marriages perspectives. Christians only believe in the marriage of opposite sex and not same sex. It will contribute to the societal moral decay and goes against their religious ideals, principles, beliefs.
Foreign policy diversity is another difference between the Democratic and Republican party. The foreign policy has been the main distinction between these parties over the decades. It highly depends on the situation at hand (Ball, 2014). For instance, the Democratic representatives endorse the inclusion of the military to eradicate totalitarian regimes, such as the assassination of Bin Laden. This party highly favors the eviction of the dictatorial leaders who are oppressive and aggressive to their own people. However, this has facilitated negative ethical consequences to the normal citizens of the affected countries. The citizens are always caught up in the middle of the war during the military opera